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What are the categories of CNC machine tools?

Release date:Jun 07,2022 Source:Bole Pageviews:-
(1) Classification by servo system type
It is divided into open-loop, closed-loop and semi closed-loop systems.
When the servo system controls the movement of the machine tool actuator, although it accepts the command required value of the numerical control device, the actual displacement is not necessarily equal to the command required value, that is, there is a certain error. This error is comprehensively reflected by four factors: the angle error of the servo motor, the transmission error of the reduction gear, the lead error of the ball screw and the ability of the guide rail pair to resist creeping. The main differences between open-loop, closed-loop and semi closed-loop systems lie in the use of different motors, whether the actuator is measured and whether the error compensation is carried out, and the size of the error compensation range. The open-loop system is simple in structure, convenient in maintenance, relatively low in precision and low in cost because it does not carry out measurement and error compensation of the actuator. It is generally used on small and medium-sized CNC machine tools with low precision requirements. Closed loop system, with high precision and high cost, is mainly used for large and precision CNC machine tools with high precision requirements. The semi closed-loop system, between the two, only compensates part of the error, so theoretically its machining accuracy is not as good as the full closed-loop system.
(2) Classification by way of controlling motion
It is divided into point control, line control and contour control.
The point control NC machine tool only controls the coordinate position of the tool relative to the positioning point of the workpiece in the machining plane, and does not require the trajectory of positioning movement. This kind of control system is mainly used for CNC drilling machine, CNC boring machine, CNC punch and measuring machine. The linear control NC machine tool can control the appropriate feed movement of the tool or workpiece, move and process in a straight line along the direction parallel to the coordinate axis, or control the two coordinate axes to move at the same speed and cut along the 45 ° inclined line. This kind of control system is mainly used in CNC lathes, CNC boring and milling machines and some machining centers. The contour control NC machine tool can control two or more coordinate axes at the same time, so that the cutter and the workpiece move relatively to process complex parts. There are few pure point control and linear control machine tools, and most of them are contour control CNC machine tools. Contour control CNC machine tools can realize linkage machining, and can also carry out point and line control. This kind of control system is mainly used for CNC lathes, CNC milling machines, CNC grinding machines and machining center machines.
(3) Classification by process use
It is divided into general CNC machine tools and CNC machining centers.
General CNC machine tools refer to CNC lathe, milling, drilling, boring, grinding and gear processing machine tools corresponding to general CNC machine tools. The most remarkable feature of the machining center is that it has a tool magazine and a tool changing manipulator, which can realize multi process machining. The capacity of the tool magazine should be more than 20 knives, but the commonly used square tool rest and octagonal tool rest do not belong to the category of the tool magazine.
(4) Classification by function of numerical control device
It is divided into CNC machine tools, simple CNC machine tools and economic CNC machine tools.

The numerical control device of the numerical control machine tool has complete functions, and can carry out automatic programming, automatic measurement and automatic fault diagnosis. The simple CNC machine tool has a single function, only has the basic function of realizing automation, and adopts the intuitive input mode, with simple structure and low price. General purpose machine tools can be transformed into economical numerical control machine tools by single chip microcomputer or single board computer through numerical control, with reliable performance and simple operation.

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    【Tag of this article】:cnc +machining manufacturing rapid +prototyping production Al CNC milling
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